Amended Gothenburg Protocol (GP)

The Protocol was amended in 2012 to include national emission reduction commitments to be achieved in 2020 and beyond. Several of the Protocol’s technical annexes were revised with updated sets of emission limit values for both key stationary sources and mobile sources, as well as with emission ceilings for fine particulate matter.


The revised Protocol also introduced flexibilities to facilitate accession of new Parties, mainly countries in Southern and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.


EU as a whole is going to reduce its emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds and PM2.5 by 59, 42, 6, 28 and 22%, respectively. The United States provisionally indicated that it is aiming for a level of ambition similar to that of the EU, with respect to its reduction commitments.



NEW National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directive covering SOx, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, and PM2.5 entered into force on 31.12.2016.